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Types of research theses: methodologies and structure

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Thesis types research: methodologies and structure of each 

A research thesis is a report that addresses a scientific problem. It raises what is known about it and how it can be resolved, provides conclusions and proposes progress. Know them types of thesis that exist helps to choose the methodology and allows to stick to a certain structure. Thus, the different types of thesis are classified based on (Aledgus, 2020): 

  • The level of studies being studied.  
  • The nature of the investigated topic.  
  • The research method used. 
  • The information management that is applied.  

From among the different types of thesis, which is carried out in a doctorate, once approved, allows to achieve the title of Doctor. In any case, these works must be objective, original, clear and specific. 

Structure of a research thesis 

Beyond the types of thesis that exist, all these research papers should have a structure similar to this: 


What precedes the investigation: title page, summary of the investigation (for references), content indexes, dedication, acknowledgments and a general introduction to the topic that is proposed to be addressed.  

Background and theoretical foundation 

A contextual explanation of the state of matter at the beginning of the investigation, taking into account previous investigations. 

Development of the theme, statement of the problem 

A general description: subjects involved, expected benefits, general and specific objectives, and justification. 


The data collection method and the instruments used. Explain what data and sources were used, what research or experimentation methods, and the theoretical framework or central hypothesis. 


The results themselves are presented, with their analysis to find out what they mean, and a discussion leading to the conclusions. 

Conclusions, recommendations and limitations 

The contributions of the research to the field of specific knowledge are explained, and warnings are made to future researchers. 


All the tables, graphs, images, charts, etc. are arranged in this segment. that help to understand the results. 


In the references, the books and materials consulted are detailed with all their editorial data. 

Types of research theses 

As we said, the types of thesis They are classified according to the type of studies in which they are carried out, the type of topic they work on, the research method they use and the handling of the information. 

1. Thesis types by their level of studies 

Depending on the level of study, it can be (FI-UNAM, sf): 

  • Bachelor's or Bachelor's degree. His contribution of knowledge is shallow. 
  • Master's degree. Research, test, and reaffirm a theory. 
  • Doctoral. It is an original research based on publications made on a topic. Proposes and demonstrates a new theory with scientific rigor. 

2. Thesis types depending on the nature of the topic 

Depending on the type of topic on which the thesis is based, it can be (FI-UNAM, nd): 

  • Intuitive. It is based on a hunch or a feeling. To develop and demonstrate it, a formal investigation is carried out with the rigor of a scientific research method. 
  • Philosophical. His approaches are supported by themes belonging to philosophy. 

3. Thesis types according to the research method 

The different types of thesis, depending on the scientific methodology used in their development, are (Asesoría MSS, 2020; Ramírez, 2020; Bermeo, 2011):  

  • Basic, pure, theoretical or dogmatic. It starts from a theoretical framework and remains in it. Its purpose is to formulate new theories or modify existing ones, and increase scientific or philosophical knowledge without contrasting it with practical aspects. 
  • Applied, practical or empirical. Look for the application or use of the knowledge that is acquired. It is closely linked to basic research. What matters are the practical consequences. 
  • Experimental. It obtains its information from the intentional activity of the researcher, aimed at modifying reality to create the very phenomenon that it investigates and thus being able to observe it. A control group may or may not be used in order to make the necessary comparisons to test the hypotheses or reject them. According to the level of knowledge acquired, it is divided into: exploratory, descriptive or explanatory. 
  • Documentary film. It mainly uses bibliographic sources to support the researcher's point of view. Expand and deepen your knowledge on the subject. It is not empirical and favors social science research. The quality and value of sources is analyzed based on their authenticity, credibility, integrity, relevance, and context.  
  • Field or laboratory. Applied to understand and solve any situation, need or problem in a given context. The researcher works in the environment of the people and sources consulted. It aims to discover relationships and interactions between sociological, psychological and educational variables in real and everyday social structures. 

4. Thesis types according to information management  

Depending on the use made of the information it contains, this may be (Asesoría MSS, 2020; Bermeo, 2011; FI-UNAM, nd): 

  • Descriptive It covers description, registration, analysis and interpretation of current nature, as well as the understanding of processes and phenomena of the reality studied. 
  • Analytics. It consists of comparing variables between study and control groups. 
  • Transcriptional. They are supported by data and information obtained from reference documents. They intend to contribute new knowledge. It makes a clear reference to the references consulted. 
  • Narratives. They are nourished by the author's experience, formally compiled to support the development of his study and supported by formal research methods. 
  • Historical. They are about past experience. They not only apply to history, but also to any other scientific discipline. It is a critical search for the truth that sustains past events. 
  • Mosaic. In their content they cover two or more topics within a central theme, giving different tones to the way of approaching the investigation, its results and conclusions.

Recommendations for deciding what types of thesis is most appropriate  

The choice of types of thesis What to do depends on many other decisions previously made: what are their purposes, what topics were chosen, how the information will be collected, and what methods will be used to process data (Aledgus, 2020). 

The most obvious thing is that, depending on the level of studies being studied, a degree, master's or doctorate thesis must be carried out. On the other hand, once the topic has been chosen, it will be known if it responds to the desire to analyze an intuition or philosophical questions. 

The basic thesis is useful when it is intended to provide theoretical knowledge; the empirical one, when the practical application of said theory is of interest. If it is going to be based on published texts, it is advisable to develop a documentary thesis. If you are going to experiment to test your hypotheses, an experimental one. And if you intend to analyze a specific context, a field. 

In conclusion, we can say that there are various types of thesis and each of them is suitable for certain research purposes. Therefore, it is important to choose the ideal type in order to enhance the development and conclusions of each job. 

Bibliographic references