Presentation of the proposal for the exercise of the Rectory of the Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo

Presentation of the proposal for the exercise of the Rectory of the Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo

Julio Sanchez Marinez
Santo Domingo, September 2020

"Having a strategy is putting our own intelligence, foresight, and will in charge, rather than external forces and messy concerns. The priorities are always there. The question is who selects them. "

George Keller (1983). Academic Strategy: The Management Revolution in American Higher Education by. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Published in Cooperation with the American Association for Higher Education.

From the original foundations to the present and the future

"A science that hesitates to forget its founders she's lost”Alfred North Whitehead

         INTEC was founded with the missionary imprint of becoming a university innovative and complementary, in the context of Dominican higher education, committed to the pursuit of academic excellence, so that, with its contribution to the intellectual, scientific and technological development of our society, it contributes to the social transformation from the country. Your own name selection, such as technological Institute, strikingly novel at that time, responded to the ethos of its founders and permanently invites us to reflect on the nature and characteristics of academic activity at the Institute.

         Throughout its nearly five decades of existence, subject to developments, changes and ups and downs of contexts and times, INTEC has managed to remain fundamentally faithful to what we could call, inspired by ethology, as an imprint, as a brand indelible, of course, subject to the processes of upgrade, but without abandoning those cardinal and central features, to put it in Gordon Allport terms.

"The idea of ​​INTEC in my perspective, was that of a modern university, a high-quality university, to contribute to a substantive advancement of the intellectual development of the scientific and technological platform of the country. (...) What we really wished, ultimately, was a modern university in the best sense of the expression. What specific form this university would have would be determined by the circumstances in the future. No one had a complete and concluding idea. And I think that a great deal of the richness of INTEC was just that it was supported by many different groups with different ideas. And the richness was that it was possible to combine all these groups in a specific project. " (Interview with Eduardo Latorre, July 1988). Julio Sanchez M: Strategy formation in INTEC. Unpublished manuscript.

         Rethinking INTEC in the present and in the future, at each juncture, therefore demands to ask ourselves and systematically reflect on what it means to contribute to the social transformation of the country from its own activities such as technological Institute, with commitment innovative and complementary, in other words, support, in the Dominican higher education system.

In a succinct way, encouraged by the recommendation of Antón Chekhov to the writers, to “say a lot with a few words”, I will pose these questions in the next few pages and outline the guidelines with which a rectoral management would address a present, focused on the future , without forgetting the basics.

The INTEC we want

"The INTEC we want”Was the title of a historic document prepared in June 2005 by a group of INTEC regents, directors, professors, graduates and collaborators, reflecting and adopting an institutional position on the eve of the selection of a new Rector for the period 2005-2008. Thus, from the Julio Ravelo de la Fuente Room, in the INTEC Library (which was not coincidentally thought and designed to be in the center as the heart of the campus), this group, identified as members of the “intellectual community of teachers, students and graduates "who make up INTEC, as stated in Article 2 of its Statutes, clearly understood that in addition to the personal qualities and conditions to be weighed in a next rector, their proposals to be developed" should be evaluated "within an academic institution".

"Every selection process arouses a natural interest in the person or persons who are elected, both for their sympathy, management style or the personal attributes that characterize them, as well as for the content of the proposals that they propose to promote, accompany, or consolidate , in this case, within an academic institution ”. The INTEC we want, July 2005.


            Three decades after the interesting reflections and proposals that this diverse but integrated group of stakeholders formulated at the time and conjuncture, as a sign that in our country "INTEC is the closest thing to an institution"[1], it is worth revisiting some of the thematic areas that they covered in their document.

Institutionality and Community

            The first two issues to highlight and to which I must refer are those of institutionality and the institutional or academic community. INTEC stands out for having established and preserved a robust and healthy institutional framework in which its nature of non-state public institution (according to the Bresser-Pereira classification[2]), its governance and its various regulations. Within the framework of this institutionality, the nature and sense of community, one and diverse, of professors, students and graduates, of directors and collaborators of the institution in general. INTEC, with which a rectory headed by this applicant is committed, is where its institutional framework is preserved and developed. And it is INTEC that has this institutional and, mainly, intellectual community as its main and central asset. Community in which the Institute's human capital is constituted, deployed and developed.

Infuse Missionary Purpose

"All of us are hungry spirits who crave purpose and meaning in our work, to contribute to something beyond ourselves, and leaders cannot forget that they must remind their staff what is important." Handy, C. (1989): The age of unreason. NY Random House

            Among the challenges to assume as Rector of INTEC is, therefore, that of leading and conducting it as institution , as a organization. This distinction, between these two simultaneous realities, established in the wisest tradition of organizational theory[3] implies for the Rector of INTEC –as for any CEO- not only defending the identity and integrity of the organization and the institutional values ​​it embodies, but also “imbue it with purpose”At the institutional level, that is, of missionary purpose. It is a question here of a deeper layer that is related to the strategic purpose who must preside over and direct the organization, both in the "technical sphere" and in the "institutional" and "collegiate", which I will refer to later.

            It is a question here of leadership to arouse, maintain and develop organizational commitment with a sense of mission and shared identity, of belonging, that sustains the enthusiasm to contribute the best of the capacities - the best of themselves - of each one, for the fulfillment of the mission, the cultivation and care of the prestige and institutional reputation and the achievement of the objectives and strategic and operational goals of the organization.

            Here, leadership must connect emotionally and rationally with people, meet and communicate with their collaborators, at their different levels and levels, identifying and leveraging on the champions, and cultivating with them a organizational culture framed by institutional principles and values ​​and passionately focused on mission.

It is about trying a transformational leadership in the sense of bernard bass, who understands that this type of leadership impacts followers "1) making them more aware of the importance and value of the results of their activity, 2) inducing them to go beyond their own interest for the benefit of the organization, and 3 ) activating their higher-order needs. "[4]   

It is not about theory or poetry here. It is about opening offices, leaving them, communicating indefatigably - saying and listening - with the full awareness that the best human capital must be interwoven, giving rise to social capital as a wealth of values, culture, organizations and cooperation networks that in together they define the social profile of the Institute.

Align around Strategic Purposes

            As INTEC's leadership as an institution unfolds, INTEC's leadership as an organization must also be exercised; While in the first the ideational, the symbolic, the cultural and the emotional-rational have preponderance, in the second competitiveness, rationality-technical, effectiveness and efficiency are privileged. In favor of the latter must be the strategic purpose[5], as the essence of organizational strategy, with respect to which there is a shared obsession to materialize it (obsession with winning).

"The problem in organizations today is the failure to distinguish planning from strategize. Planning is about programming, not discovering. The approach is for technocrats, not dreamers. Giving planners responsibility for creating the strategy is like asking the bricklayer to create the Pietà de Miguel Angel”. Gary Hamel (1996) Strategy as revolution. Harvard Business Review: July – August0

            At the same time, the strategic purpose it is more than just unfettered ambition. It involves and leads to an active management process that includes focusing the organization's attention on the essence of winning, motivating people, communicating the value of objectives, leaving space for people and team contributions, maintaining enthusiasm when providing new operational definitions as circumstances change and constantly using intention to guide resource allocation. The strategic purpose It offers long-term perspective, but also provides coherence to short-term action, while leaving room for reinterpretation as new opportunities emerge.

            A good strategic purpose implies demanding considerable effort for the organization, accepting that the current capacities and resources will not be enough, which forces the organization to be more inventive, to make the most of limited resources. While the traditional view of strategy focuses on the degree of fit between existing resources and current opportunities, strategic purpose creates a challenging mismatch between resources and ambitions with respect to current and future opportunities.

"The collective construction of INTEC that we want in 2010 deserves the development of a process, in which each" member of the community can visualize and share what they understand should be the priorities, actions and strategic results of the Rectory for the period 2005- 2008 and that this decision-making body has the ability to recognize and contribute to the consolidation of the assets of the Community, being conservative with positive traditions, which have constituted and constitute a special seal in our community. " The INTEC we want, July 2005.

The INTEC we want, 2005.

            To dare to demand that extraordinary effort, it is needed precisely as a co-requisite (rather than as a pre-requisite) infuse the organization with missionary purpose, as we said before, raising, maintaining and developing organizational commitment with a sense of mission and shared identity, of belonging, that sustains the enthusiasm to contribute the best of the capacities - the best of themselves - of each one. The attention and efforts on the part of the highest executive leadership for the recreation of the votes of institutional commitment in all the members of the Institute –the most senior and the most recent incorporation-, as we have defined it here, is a recurring theme in organizations, as evidenced by the attention paid to it in 2005 by those who spoke with the document The INTEC we want.

Strategize: FOAR instead of SWOT

            The logic to formulate and commit to a strategic purpose It is the identification of the competencies to be developed to obtain ambitious results, defined from challenging aspirations, which must be set out in a shared vision.

            As the new Chancellor, the writer must bring bold proposals to establish INTEC's strategic purpose, vision, and goals and objectives in the coming years. In no way can you abdicate that responsibility. But it is no less true that without collective participation, without a collective construction of such a strategic purpose and vision, these will not be a shared obsession that unleashes a spiral of sustained efforts.

            What should be the result of the rectory leadership exercise is to propose and invite to assume the present and, above all, the future, with a daring, ambitious and challenging stance. This is how today the formulation of the strategic purpose and vision is made based on a sincere examination of the strengths and a thorough investigation of the opportunities of each organization and a bold debate on the aspirations and results to be nurtured. Strategic inquiry leads us to recognize the strengths that must be preserved and enhanced, as well as those that must be acquired and built, vis a vis the opportunities that are identified with a fresh, ingenious and imaginative look. Without ignoring the weaknesses, emphasis is placed on the strengths present and those that will have to be achieved to make the aspirations viable and achieve the results in taking advantage of the opportunities to be exploited. 

Why are “less than 10% of strategies, even those formulated effectively, implemented effectively”? 

  • Less than 5% of the members of the organization are aware of, or understand the strategy.
  • Less than 25% of managers have their incentives tied to the achievement of strategic objectives.
  • More than 60% of organizations do not link their budgets to strategy.
  • Few senior executive teams (less than 15%) spend more than an hour a month discussing strategy. ”   

Kaplan, RS & Norton, DP  "Creating the Strategy-Focused Organization with the Balanced Scorecard"

            As we can see, FOAR is a strengths-inspired analytical framework that we use to strategize and then move on to strategic planning. This framework helps identify and leverage internal assets, core strengths, and spell out aspirations and opportunities to achieve measurable results and impacts. It fosters a constructive, growth-oriented and potential-focused understanding of the organization's potential in taking advantage of identified opportunities. Ultimately, it is about “make strategy everyone's job”, To use the expression of Kaplan and Norton.

FOAR Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo - Presentation of the proposal for the exercise of the Rectory of the Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo

Two Times, Two Speeds

            In all management, especially one that starts a new stewardship, it is necessary to work agilely with two terms, short and long terms, and at two speeds, starting and continuity. Based on a rapid but comprehensive diagnosis, the decisions must be made and the actions that the operational continuity of the institution demands must be taken, while defining and redefining a long-term course focused on strategic purposes.

            The foregoing, valid in any situation and to stand out in a change of command, is of special importance given the particular situation, defined by the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on health, economic, social and, particularly, education. This multiple crisis has presented threats that threaten the operational continuity and also the sustainability of organizations and institutions of all kinds, to which higher education institutions do not escape in any way.

            Articulating and energizing the current instances, structures and teams, without renouncing ad-hoc committees and commissions appropriate to immediate operational needs, a new Rector must assume his position with high involvement, taking care not to be absorbed by the black hole of micro-management , but attentive to the day-to-day details and promptly monitoring and generating the required adjustments, to avoid, mitigate or overcome the difficulties that have arisen and that will continue to arise as the crisis we are going through unfolds. Decisions on finances, on the continuity of teaching with a virtual and distance offer and through telework, its plausible return to semi-presence and eventually to presence (without abandoning the earnings of the experience of the virtual and remote forced offer), the dedication in the retention of the student body and in the effective attraction of new students, the participation with contributions and solutions to the problems caused by the crisis, the maintenance of dedication, enthusiasm and the participation of the different institutional bodies, to mention just some of the outstanding aspects of current operations.

Long-term planning is not thinking about future decisions, but about the future of present decisions. (Peter F. Drucker)

            The delicate art to be cultivated by the Rector will be to balance high attention and involvement in daily management, at least in this stage, without neglecting his dedication to the tasks that arise from the approaches and areas referred to in previous paragraphs, such as Nor are its efforts to be present and link with external sectors (graduates, businessmen and business associations, the government sector, civil society organizations, etc.) which are non-delegable and priority tasks on the agenda of every rector.

Context, Trends and Opportunities:
4th. Industrial Revolution


"Businesses are going to change more in the next ten years than they have in the last fifty. " Gates, B. (1999). Business @ the Speed ​​of Thought. NY: Warner Books.

            The recognition that we live in times of incessant change and transformation and in continuous acceleration is now commonplace. A look at the MIT Technological Review and their forward-looking forecasts published successively in January 1932 (in the number entitled The future of engineering), in November 1965 (in the issue entitled The economy of the year 2001), and in January 1991 (at titled number The creation of the information market), as an example of the historical perspective of the successive waves of transformations that have been happening and that will continue at surprising speeds and impacts in times to come, which recall the paradoxical expression of the French poet Paul Valéry in 1937: “the problem of our times is that the future is not what it used to be".

            From the industrial revolution it took us a century and a half to move on to the "internet revolution" and, from this, less than half a century to arrive at the revolution of the "industrial internet" that "opens new frontiers to accelerate productivity, reduce inefficiencies and waste, and improve the human work experience ”.[6]  This “fourth industrial revolution”, as Klaus Schwab, the founder of the World Economic Forum, has called it, offers challenges, demands and opportunities that no country, organization or institution escapes from within the framework of globalization that interconnects and interrelates us. world scale, and that places us as such and even as individuals in hyper-competitive scenarios. Here it is very important to note that while the "internet revolution" has involved "flattenThe world, to embrace Friedman's expression[7]By offering countries, companies and individuals more opportunities to compete, with a good chance of success, in the global economy, the “fourth industrial revolution” or “industrial internet revolution” raises the bar, raises the slope of competitiveness with much greater demand for scientific and technological knowledge, capacity for innovation, training and updating of human capital. If the “internet revolution” entered the “information age”, the fourth industrial revolution has certainly led us to the “knowledge economy”.

            The training demanded by 'internetification'of the physical world, the development of cyber-physical systems and of the new modalities of work-in-network, with high analytical-technological content and at the same time social, of the 4th. Industrial Revolution refers not only to the acquisition and development of new scientific and technical capacities (knowledge and skills), but also of new mental models and interrelationship systems that allow managers, engineers, technicians and operators to join the new human-digital nervous systems that will prevail in industry and, in general, in organizations and productive and service systems of all kinds, permeating all daily life.[8] 

The Fourth Industrial Revolution will finally change not only what we do but also who we are. It will affect our identity and all the problems associated with it: our sense of privacy, our notions of property, our consumption patterns, the time we spend at work and leisure, and how we develop our careers, cultivate our skills, meet people, and we cultivate relationships. It is already changing our health and leading to a "quantified" self, and sooner than we think it may lead to the augmented human. The list is endless because it is limited only by our imagination. Klaus Schwab (2015). The Fourth Industrial Revolution: What It Means and How to Respond. Foreign Affairs: November-December.

            It is not only a question of "technological" careers (in a narrow sense) or engineering. Although we face uncertainty regarding how the transformations and disruptions that will alter the exercise of jobs and professions as we know them today will end up having an impact, including the disappearance of many of them and the emergence of many new ones, we can be sure of that practically the entire universe of jobs and professions with medium to high levels of intellectual content will be significantly affected, in the fields of engineering and technologies, of course, but also in the areas of medical, health and human services, of agricultural production, business, services, logistics and maintenance operations, and let's stop counting.

            Artificial intelligence and robotics, the internet of things and augmented reality, nanotechnology and biotechnology, three-dimensional printing, intelligent machines and devices and intelligent systems - homes, factories, hospitals, farms, networks of everything type and cities-, massive databases (big data) and the accessibility and cloud computing of data, information and applications, the interconnectivity between things, systems and people, with interfaces that link human beings with machines, devices, systems and channels in terms of information, in real time. collaborative communication between humans, regardless of their physical location (which Russell has called the "global brain"[9]), this whole set drivers  they will re-configure the entire work and professional world.

            All of the above requires that the university be reviewed and updated, re-imagined and redefined, matching its central functions of training and teaching, research, innovation and extension and services with new demands and new challenges. that present the scenarios of these waves of scientific-technical, productive and social revolutions.

INTEC: El Tecnológico de RD, partner of choice
in the national scientific-technological and productive development

            Given the training of INTEC's founders, it is plausible to think that when deciding its name as a technological institute, they had as references university models such as the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, founded in 1824, the first historically of its kind, or similar ones such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology New Jersey Institute of Technology, Rochester Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, Carnegie Mellon University (originally Carnegie Institute of Technology) or –although it does not adopt the qualifier of technological in its name- Stanford University. In general, without detracting from the liberal arts or general education component characteristic of higher education in the United States, this university model emerged privileging science and technology in their respective curricula and program offerings.

            Certainly, as soon as INTEC took a turn to assume the offer of degree programs, with the Scream of Guayacanes, adopted the general structuring of the curriculum for its different programs, in the traditional preparatory (or initial), training and professional cycles, the former contemplating much of what in the Anglo-Saxon tradition is understood as general studies or liberal arts, the latter concentrating on formative initiation to basic scientific disciplines and the third dedicated to what is more specifically related to the professional field of the career.

            This emphasis and priority to the scientific-technological - as highlighted in its own General Statutes - not only permeated and permeates all the training of professionals at INTEC, but the Institute has always strived to have human capital in science and technologies, for sustaining research and science, technology and innovation (STI) activities at the highest possible levels, to which it has added relatively more recently those of entrepreneurship.

            The entire history of INTEC with this original seal, preserved throughout its entire trajectory, allows us to insist that, when defining its strategic purposes, INTEC is projected as businesses preferably in the national scientific-technological and productive development for the government and business sectors and, in general, for all the relevant actors involved in the social transformation of the country. Today, as much or more than ever before, it makes sense to insist on this positioning in the face of the challenges and demands presented by technical-economic revolutions such as the fourth industrial revolution. 

            The pursuit of this positioning has direct implications for the curricular approach of the INTEC academic program offer, for its scientific-technological academic activity, in innovation and entrepreneurship, for its policy of linking, alliances and institutional, national and international relations, and for the development and consolidation of its human capital, to which I will refer hereinafter.

STEM and STEAM approaches
in the Dominican technology

            As we know, the acronym STEM, in English for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, coined since the early 90's, initially responded to the lack of professionals in these areas in the United States, then called STEM professionals. However, with the transformations and disruptions in process, the result of the techno-economic revolutions that we are experiencing, it has spread as a generalized curricular approach that underlines the need for students to acquire the competencies and skills necessary to succeed in the challenging world of today. These competencies include those of the ability to think critically, solve complex problems and promote advances in science and technology, using and taking advantage of the skills offered by the knowledge and tools that STEM sources offer us. In other words, it is conceived as necessary that all training in the different professions have a component, an orientation and a STEM base.

            In this way, the STEM approach not only implies the teaching of these disciplines and subjects in isolation, but also implies a multidisciplinary approach to the knowledge and understanding of the content developed in and through these four “disciplines” and their particular appropriation from the perspective of each professional field (not only the originally called STEM professions, in a narrow sense).

“It is in Apple's DNA that technology alone is not enough; it is technology married to the liberal arts, married to the humanities, that gives us the results that make our hearts sing. "Steve Jobs, introducing the iPad 2, in March 2011.

            More recently, taking advantage of the customary puns and acronyms in Anglo-Saxon cultures, there is talk not only of STEM (root) but also of STEAM (steam), including the A for Art + Design (understanding in "art" to arts and humanities), as a source of creative thought, vocation and capacity for design and harmonization of the technical and the friendly and pleasantly human. To put it in terms of Oregon State Congresswoman Suzanne Bonamici, “STEAM involves the integration of the arts and design principles, concepts, and techniques in STEM instruction and learning achieved through the use of arts curriculum integration, collaboration with qualified teaching artists, community-based arts organizations, and arts teachers employed by local education agencies and other teaching institutions. Methods that use the arts to facilitate and effectively carry out STEM instruction and learning.

            Curriculum development at INTEC should continue to underpin, as I understand it has already begun, in the STEM / STEAM approach, which should be a central part of the university pedagogy portfolio of all teachers, as well as the debate and work related to the formulation, development and implementation of all their study plans in their undergraduate and graduate academic offerings.

Importance of Competencies
and Social and "Soft" Skills

“On average, by 2020 according to our respondents, more than one-third of the desired core skill sets in most occupations will be made up of skills that are not yet considered critical to jobs today. In general, soft skills, such as persuasion, emotional intelligence, and teaching others, will be in greater demand in industries than technical skills in a narrow sense, such as programming or equipment operation and control. In essence, technical skills should be complemented by strong collaborative and social skills. ” World Economic Forum (2016). The Future of Jobs: Employment, Skills and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

                  Along with the STEM / STEAM approach in curriculum development, special attention should be paid to the intentional and systematic cultivation of so-called social and “soft” skills in professional, undergraduate and postgraduate training, in all INTEC's academic offerings. Among the social and soft skills, those of coordinating with others and working as a team, those of negotiation and persuasion, those of relating to emotional intelligence, teaching and learning from others, skills that are required by the situations that will demand stand out. communication and collaboration between humans, even without regard to physical location, which implies relationships with superiors, colleagues and subordinates from different fields of training as well as from different nationalities and cultures. It is also about the type of competences and skills that are not, as foreseeable, substitutable by any cyber-physical, automated or artificial intelligence-based system.

            Universities have widely privileged work at the level of cognitive skills and, in general, have not assumed the systematic cultivation subject to programming and formal evaluation of the development of these skills and social and “soft” skills. This is so despite the fact that they offer opportunities for them to be put into play and, more recently, some institutions pay more attention to them as learning results in themselves and not as simple co-products of the general learning tasks of the students . Human interaction in the workplace involves the deployment of these “soft” skills in team production, where workers take advantage of the strengths of others and adapt flexibly to changing circumstances; it is these non-routine interactions that are at the heart of human advantage over machines.

                  INTEC has accumulated significant experiences in the management of an intentional and systematic cultivation of situations that require its students to acquire, put into practice and assess social and "soft" competencies and skills, starting from the same intense, uninterrupted and demanding regime of work. At INTEC we have also had some episodic attempts for a formal programming and evaluation of the development of these social and "soft" skills and abilities. Building on this basis, the near future curriculum development should underline, systematize and expand the components related to these learning objectives.



1.     sense-making

Ability to discriminate and filter information for importance, and to understand how to maximize cognitive functioning using a variety of tools and techniques

2.     social intelligence

 Ability to work productively, drive engagement, and demonstrate presence as a member of a virtual team

3.     Novel & adaptive thinking

Proficiency at thinking and coming up with solutions and responses beyond that which is rotate or rule-based

4.     Cross-cultural competition

Ability to operate in different cultural settings

5.      computational thinking

Ability to translate vast amounts of data into abstract concepts and to understand data-based reasoning

6.      New media literacy

Ability to critically develop and assess content that uses new media forms, and to leverage these media for persuasive communications

7.      transdisciplinarity

Literacy in and ability to understand concepts across multiple disciplines

8.      design mindset

Ability to represent and develop tasks and work processes for desired outcomes

9.     Cognitive load management

Ability to discriminate and filter information for importance, and to understand how to maximize cognitive functioning using a variety of tools and techniques

10.   Virtual collaboration

Ability to work productively, drive engagement, and demonstrate presence as a member of a virtual team

Davies, A .; Fidler, D. & Gorbis, M. (2011). Future work skills 2020. Palo Alto, CA: Institute for the Future (IFTF) & University of Phoenix Research Institute.


Learning based and focused on Challenges and Projects,
Multi-Disciplinary Teams and Capstone Courses

            Being consistent with the formative aspirations to which I have alluded above, the structuring of the curriculum in the different careers or study programs must ensure the existence of curricular units that are highly appropriate for learning STEM / STEAM competencies and social skills and "Soft" to which I have alluded. Appropriate curricular units for their implementation and equally, and no less important, to assess as an institution the extent to which students are acquiring, developing and exercising them. For these purposes, it is appropriate to insert in any study program courses or curricular units that consist of the analysis and diagnosis of real situations, the development of problem-solving projects, proposing and testing improvements in processes or products, preferably by multi-team teams. -disciplinary, as well as comprehensive courses or capstone courses (by "cap-stone" in English). For the sake of brevity, instead of referring to the different types of courses of this type or nature, I will refer below exclusively to the capstone courses.

            Un capstone course, often translated as a final module, it constitutes an integrative and culminating module and is essential for the student to demonstrate the high-level skills and knowledge necessary to obtain a grade level qualification. They are generally projects with a duration of more than one academic period that are completed in the final section of the study plan, as they require that the student who participates in it has completed the prerequisites. This type of course demands the implementation of disciplinary and transversal competences established in the graduation profiles of the students (so that, in addition to constituting an evaluation of the students, they are a source of feedback for the university regarding the level of achievement of their students' graduation profiles).

            Another advantage of capstone courses and similar curricular units - a positive externality, economists would say - is that of the opportunities that, on the occasion of them and the projects that students undertake, links with companies and tissue organizations are facilitated. productive or service of the society. In fact, the topics of the projects of these courses can be privileged insofar as they respond to a need or problem diagnosed in an organization or company, so that it is attended by the student project team, seeking their insertion in the environment of said organization or company and seeking its support. The project thus becomes a means of linking students, the university and the organization or company.

 In Pro of Curricular Development as
Continuous Activity of the entire Teacher Community

“As we enter a new century, societal agreements about what defines an educated person, what constitutes essential knowledge and common discourse, have essentially collapsed. Simply stated, academics must recapture the curriculum… In fact, “the greatest privilege an academic can have is to design and support a curriculum. "  Frank rhodes, former President Emeritus of Cornell University (1999) The New University, in Challenges Facing Higher Education at the Millennium. Washington, DC: The American Council on Education and The Oryx Press.

            The ends demand adequate means. Realizing aspirations such as those previously described requires appropriate instrumentation through curriculum development. We prefer to talk about curricular development instead of curricular reform inasmuch as, more often than not, the curricular reform projects undertaken by institutions of higher education, broadly formal and ambitious, with a beginning and an end, have remained in ritual exercises and in formal documents that do not percolate in the regular activity , daily and common of the implementation of the study plans, their courses and their teaching-learning activities. The notion of curriculum development refers to a continuous, uninterrupted task of reviewing, updating, improving and enriching the study plans, their courses, content and learning activities, led by teams of teachers empowered for that purpose, guided by the guidelines of the institutional educational model (such as the MAE-INTEC, or the Educational Model of the Tecnológico de Monterrey, to mention two examples), but grounded in the particular reality of the vocational training program in question (in other words, its main protagonists They are not general pedagogues dealing with particular professional fields, but, on the contrary, teachers of those particular professional fields pedagogically empowered for better training in their respective areas).

            It is necessary to be very aware - because it is often forgotten or underestimated in practice - that the implementation of an Educational Model represents a challenge for every higher education institution and that its development process will require several years of execution to reach the relatively achieved state and stable. Therefore, it will be necessary to continue building the INTEC Educational Model from the previous efforts made to formulate the current MAE-INTEC Educational Model, now with the perspective of curriculum development and the approaches outlined here.

            To the extent that the university pedagogical culture and academic accreditation approaches and policies have moved from an emphasis on inputs to another on results, highlighting the learning results in students and graduates (as well as their employability and positioning in the "Real world" after passing through the university), the educational model of INTEC and the curricular means in which it is verified, should favor the institutional positioning such as the technological one of the Dominican Republic, a preferred partner in scientific-technological development and national productive.

The On-line Offer is here to stay,
Hybrid Alloy shows stronger

Proactive virtualization goes beyond the next academic term or the future

out of the crisis. Institutions will have to decide the role of virtuality in their academic work and act accordingly. Out of crises, in addition to problems, opportunities and accelerators of innovations and developments arise that would otherwise not be addressed or would be postponed and postponed for lack of a sense of urgency. (Sanchez Maríñez et al, 2020)

            Although INTEC was preparing and testing the online academic offer, it is no less true that forced virtualization, in general reactive to the outbreak of the pandemic, moved at an abrupt pace to a completely virtual offer due to the health limitations imposed on presence on campus and in classrooms. For the vast majority of higher education institutions, this transition to virtual and distance offers of their academic programs has implied, in the best cases, an accelerated transition from the reactive to the proactive, installing a "quality offer built from the lessons learned from the previous stages and the best national and international practices "[10].

            With the return to what has been called the “new normal”, the experience, learning and skills acquired for the online offer of activities, courses and academic programs (as will happen with telework modalities) should not be put aside, abandoned. On the contrary, they must be conserved, cultivated, perfected and thus used, generating a hybrid offer, virtual and remote, together with traditional face-to-face activities. Hybrid models of academic offerings have been recognized as superior to separate models, either in person or online (see, for example: Christensen, C. & Eyring, HJ (2011) The innovative university: Changing the DNA of Higher Education from the inside out. NJ .: Jossey-Bass).

            The hybrid alloy, face-to-face / online, offers invaluable opportunities to diversify the means by which the academic offer is made, decongest physical facilities in appropriate cases, relocate said offer when there are objectives to reach populations outside the physical campus, as well as also to incorporate the interaction with students from other latitudes, from episodic exchanges to participation in common formal projects and, of great importance, to efficiently and effectively incorporate professors from other universities, not only in the country but also abroad.

An updated, Differentiated and Innovative Offer
with Flexibility and Synergy between Programs and Teaching Staff

         INTEC has managed to maintain an updated, complementary offer (in the sense of different and non-repetitive, thought by the founders), differentiated and innovative. He has led with innovative offerings in engineering and science, and differentiated in medicine and business. It has recently ratified this vocation with the opening of new programs such as biomedical engineering, cybersecurity, commercial communication and advertising, marketing and digital business, financial engineering, social communication and digital media, film and audiovisual communication, in secondary education, among others.

In INTEC's original conceptions, it was proposed to lean towards the generalist extreme in the generalist-specialist equation, mitigating the professionalizing effect of Dominican higher education and referring specialization to postgraduate studies and continuing education. Today we can recapture that orientation. Additionally, the graduate level would have the perspective of being specialized by the companies or organizations in which they are inserted, an alternative that is also considered internationally.

Sanchez Marinez, J. (2007) Unifying business degree studies.  INTEC: Position Paper (unpublished).

            This bold and proactive stance must be maintained, ensuring, however, the emphasis on differentiation as a competitive strategy. Avoiding dispersion, it should be insisted on seeking the best possible synergy between the different programs, both due to the characteristics of their curricular design and due to their leverage in human talent highly linked to the Institute. To a competitive strategy based on differentiation, I would add that it is a related diversification.

            Curriculum design principles, on the one hand, and human capital inventories, on the other, make it possible to discern between initiatives that respond at the same time to innovation in supply, differentiation and related diversification. The appropriate conception of the curricular cycles, common to all careers or programs, or those of the same area or faculty, has constituted a historical basis for INTEC to have been able to put into practice those strategic approaches that, being a university, it shares with the business organizations in the best sense of the related differentiation and diversification strategy.

            Within the framework of this curricular offer there is space to innovate based on it, while introducing flexibility, if INTEC explores the possibility of taking other daring steps, such as introducing the system of majors and minors (also known as concentrations) and the elective options (which Tecnológico de Monterrey today calls trajectories), system and options that Eliot and Lowell innovatively introduced as presidents of Harvard University.

 A Demanding and Welcoming Institution

         Throughout its history, INTEC has been recognized as a training institution committed to academic excellence, demanding, challenging, challenging, in which many emphasize that, in addition to a solid and updated training, it makes its students learn to "Work under pressure" developing attitudes and skills that allow them to do so. 

            Complementing the above, INTEC must also be a welcoming institution as well as demanding, since it could be asserted that “Politeness, does not remove the brave”. That has been the position of successive rectorial administrations and with that purpose efforts have been made on the part of the directive bodies of INTEC. In the same direction, an entire institutional culture must continue to be forged, especially a teaching culture, inclusive of all teachers, that combines both values.

            What we are dealing with here, to make it more explicit, is that welcoming conditions, in addition to demanding, challenging or demanding, must be manifested not only in policies and procedures, in campus conditions, in the attitudes and competencies of the staff of support in contact with the student body, but also and, very especially, in the different “moments of truth”(As conceived by Jan Carlzon in his theories of customer service) of the common and current interactions between the different members of the institutional community, with each other, highlighting the most important of all, the teacher-student relationships.

The Extended INTEC:
Bonding, Relationships and Alliances

         Making INTEC the preferred partner in the national scientific-technological and productive development is a position that should be the object of the highest priority by the INTEC Rectory and, with its emphasis, central aspiration in strategic purposes and in the vision and culture shared by the entire academic community.

         INTEC has as part of its institutional heritage a tradition of openness and proactivity in the pursuit, establishment and development of forms of linkage, inter-institutional relations and national and international alliances that have borne very profitable fruits and are shown with their realities or their traces in the same institutional fabric, in its centers and observatories, in its laboratories and buildings, in its programs and projects. Building and drawing inspiration from that tradition and heritage, each stage in institutional life is worthy of renewed efforts to develop bonding relationships and alliances for the benefit of INTEC's fulfillment of its missionary responsibilities and its programs and projects, as well as of the needs of those linked and allies and the entire Dominican society.

            The importance for INTEC of this management of external relations and alliances was demonstrated with the creation, in 2008, of a vice-rectory dedicated to research and outreach, which we were able to inaugurate and set up in the period 2008-2012, with results of impact on national inter-institutional relations, such as those that gave rise to the Haas Technical Center or the International Trade Observatory, for example, or those that produced alliances for articulated programs, as in the cases of the City College of New York or the University of Miami , or mobility programs to Canadian higher education institutions.

            Recognizing the achievements made, I understand that a new rectorial period at INTEC should stand out significantly for the impulse to bonding, in its different forms and modalities and with its different degrees of scope, consolidating, developing and expanding inter-institutional relations and alliances National and international. In fact, the efforts in these areas and in those senses constitute inalienable and non-delegable tasks of a rector, however, their support in instances and in collaborators of the entire institution. As I will discuss later, I see the rector as ambidextrous in more ways than one, occupied by academics and administration, as well as pending internally to the institution and active externally in connection tasks.

Bonding-relationships-alliances Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo - Presentation of the proposal for the exercise of the Rectory of the Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo

            It is necessary to establish permanent communicating vessels with business associations and with government entities that support the productive sector, position oneself in the top of mind of them as a preferred partner for projects and initiatives that may in some way involve universities. The same should be done with proactive approaches to companies in different industrial sectors, especially those with patent or latent interests in the fields of innovation and training.

            One way to approximate the scope of INTEC's relationships and alliances is to think of INTEC as “extended company”(To take advantage of the notion proposed by Dan Tapscott[11]) because of its accessibility, its links of relative interdependence and shared and cooperative metabolism, with inter-organizational or inter-institutional value chains. A good example of these relationships, including what can be considered as shared value chains, are the articulated programs (2 + 2) between INTEC and several universities in the United States.

            The leadership and involvement of the Rector, with the support of the pertinent organizational instances and, also, of a network of champions that have always stood out as such in the INTEC faculty and that can be multiplied with new champions Additional, if they are identified and cultivated as such, can and should serve as a platform for the development of those ties and relationships. It has taken place and can and must be deepened.

            One of the modalities to be promoted must be to link the activity of research, projects and problem solving and innovative proposals of the students and the teaching staff that accompany them, for which the students may well be suitable. capstone courses or similar curricular units that are part of the study plans of the different careers in INTEC's academic offerings. The same can be said of projects originated by properly teaching initiatives, to which undergraduate students and, if possible, graduate students should join.

            Both the business and government sectors can be attracted and involved in the creation and development of specialized laboratories, which can combine educational and training activities for formal and continuing education programs and services of interest and value for the external sector. One area to explore in this sense is that of facilities and equipment that can also meet technical training needs, especially - but not exclusively - higher technology, due to the wide gap in the training offer that exists at these levels and the significant demands for qualification and re-qualification of technicians that is verified in the country, vis a vis the technological developments to which we have already referred. Initiatives in this area, as in other public professional services, including health areas, can be structured under recent legislation, including Law 47-20 on Public-Private Partnerships and the possible National Qualifications Framework.

            INTEC graduates have contributed and can contribute even more by playing prospective and active liaison roles in identifying opportunities and opening contacts and relationships. The contact, communication and involvement of graduates must be broad, extended, permanent and recurring.

"If the university is intended to be a public service institution, on the basis of knowledge, knowledge and the humanities, its autonomy from particular interests and its wealth of skills and human resources, it must address in a radical and innovative way the question of its social embedding and institutional in the fabric of society as a whole. It will have to decide if the link with the community and the region in which it is inserted more immediately will be only distant, via the delivery of human resources in the form of graduates, or if it will be more intimate and direct. Similarly, it must decide the forms and degrees of linkage with companies, civil society organizations, state entities of central, regional and municipal government and other institutions that at the local and national level co-exist with greater or lesser convergences or intersections of purposes, functions and activities ”. Sánchez Maríñez, J. (2004). Strategic Issues for Higher Education in the First Decade of the New Millennium. Unpublished manuscript.

            To articulate good institutional relations and outreach programs, with outreach broad and sustained towards the business sector, the government sector, international organizations and graduates, among other external sectors, the Rectory will need an effective and efficient, agile and responsive support platform. An organizational development area that articulates programmatically, if not structurally, the current instances of communications, marketing and institutional relations, among others, according to good practice models such as those that can be learned from CASE[12] and they can be of much use to model the functions and activities of promotion services (in its broadest sense of “advancement”), Alumni relations, communications and fundraising. This must be one of the most important initiatives in a new rectory period.

            At the level of inter-institutional alliances with other universities and higher education institutions, based on the important advances made by INTEC, especially with programs articulated with universities in the United States, especially in degree programs and engineering, there are We must insist on expanding alliances with other universities, including European universities, both in undergraduate and graduate programs, as well as in double degree programs. The country has a cultural (and language) advantage with Spanish and Portuguese universities, without detriment to those of other nations in Europe. South-south relations can and should also be explored, with universities of high regional prestige, such as the Universidad de los Andes, in Colombia, or the Instituto Tecnológico de Monterrey or the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile to mention just a few. 

            The possibilities that the offer of distance or virtual courses and programs opens up (in which INTEC already had significant experience in the past with an entire formal program with the University of Barcelona) must be considered for these inter-university alliances, starting with the remote participation of visiting professors in courses of the current regular offer in the Institute.

            Inter-university alliances between national higher education institutions should not be excluded but also considered. The leadership of the Loyola Specialized Institute of Higher Studies in technical-higher education, for example, specializations in areas of law that are tangential to technological and business areas, such as those cultivated by the OMG Institute or the Higher Institute of Specialized Studies in Social Sciences and Humanities Dr. Luis Heredia Bonetti, training capacities in philosophy, humanities and social sciences of the Pedro Francisco Bonó Philosophical Institute, of the Jesuits (with which INTEC maintained for several years an institutionally validated program that could open doors to relationships with highly prestigious Jesuit universities throughout the hemisphere associated in AUSJAL), are initial examples to justify leaving open possibilities for local alliances.

            In any case we must think with the rector emeritus Rhodes that the university of the XXI century should be “academically independent but constructively associated"[13].

Research and Innovation:
A Janussian Approach

         INTEC's commitment to scientific and academic research is inalienable. Even in the most difficult financial times, INTEC has had its own budget items, however minimal, to support research. So have its efforts to attract, host and retain qualified researchers as part of its faculty.        

            There is high competitive pressure among universities to achieve recognition and positions in the qualification systems (rankings) of universities, which, despite their different configurations, mostly favor a system of criteria that, under the imperative of publishing or perishing (publish or perish), imposes objectives and metrics in terms of the type and destination of the publications, as well as the indicators based on which they are valued (such as the impact factor determined by the number of citations of the articles in the academic journal in question, or the H index, or Hirsch, as an indicator to evaluate the scientific production of a researcher).

Janusian thought is an expression coined by Albert Rothenberg after extensively studying the use of opposites in the creative process. Rothenberg, Principal Investigator of the Research Program Studies in the Creative Process, defines Janusian thought as a two-faced thought, capable of actively conceiving two or more opposing ideas, concepts or images simultaneously. He was inspired for this denomination by a reference to Janus, a god in Roman mythology, who has two faces and therefore the property of looking in two opposite directions at the same time.

            This is not the space to address the intense and extensive debate that exists around the measurement of quality and productivity in research and scientific publications, as well as around university ranking systems. Inevitably, any university that respects itself will try to compete to the extent of its possibilities in the spaces defined by the prevailing “rules of the game”.

            So if you can advocate it is for a Janusian stance on research and academic and scientific publications, with a two-sided strategy that covers both research within the framework of the dominant paradigm as well as relevant and pertinent "applied" research. more of the type of research (basic or applied) "inspired by use”(According to Stokes[14]), as part of the R + D + i cycle.

            What I am referring to is to promote and decisively support research in its broadest sense, including that aimed at solving problems and satisfying the practical needs of the productive sectors and the population, generating designs, techniques, procedures and formulas, process and product improvements, prototypes in their different stages of development, which can be used and transformed into different modes of innovation by private or public companies, service organizations and, in general, agents operating in markets and operations .

            With this two-sided strategy, projects of the teaching staff as well as of the students, as part of their training activities, as is the case of the capstone courses and other special courses, it will be possible to try to link these projects with the productive sectors and agents in the markets, seeking their support and participation, promoting the positioning of INTEC as a preferred partner in the national scientific-technological and productive development, trying to unleash a spiral of relevant and pertinent initiatives to the productive, economic and social transformation needs of the nation.

            INTEC's potential in this line and in these areas, although it has been exploited, is still insufficiently exploited. Insisting in these ways, in addition to the formative advantages for its students and the projection and professional fulfillment of its teaching staff, can open up significant opportunities for the Institute as a whole in its links and relations with external sectors.

Operate with a Dual Operating System:
Networks and Ad-hoc Instances with the Structure

A leader on campus must find ways to listen, walk the hallways and trails, attend events, always looking for opportunities to ask, “What's going well? What would you have liked to have changed in the past week? (...). Effective leaders pay attention and learn; They don't just wait their turn to refute what was said. They listen to what is important to the faculty members, rather than telling the faculty members what is important. (...) A new campus president is often encouraged to think of a vision to take the institution in a new direction. Unless the president understands and respects the heritage of the institution, he may encounter unnecessary challenges when advocating for change. Change is often needed (innovation is almost always required), but departing from core values ​​and disrespecting an institution's heritage can make change and innovation difficult to achieve. The process is important. Ignoring it can make the process itself the topic of discussion rather than the required change. Robert A. Scott, President and Professor Emeritus at Adelphi University. In: "Perspective: Eight Lessons for Leadership," The Presidency, the American Council on Education's quarterly magazine. June 2014 edition.

         Pursuing strategic purposes in the present times requires the coordination and convergence of many efforts, on the part of many, and a leadership that, affirming itself as such, fosters a shared and distributed leadership throughout the organization. Organizational structures, that innovation originated in the transition from the 19th to the 20th century by the needs of mass production and the growth of organizations, has been refined and rethought over time and each organization needs to adjust it as necessary, following the Chandler's principle that “structure follows strategy”, Always taking advantage of the appropriate distribution of work, the clarity of roles and the good programming, coordination and monitoring of operations.

           However, the growing demands for better and faster responses by organizations to fluid conjunctures, full of challenges and challenges and aimed at taking advantage of opportunities that often have ephemeral opening windows, especially with the presence of competitors pending the themselves, leads institutions to complement their hierarchical structures with alternative forms of organization, most of them temporary, such as committees and commissions, task-forces, quality circles and project teams, among others.

            The aforementioned has special relevance for universities, professional organizations in which the nature of their operations and central tasks rest mainly in academic communities of professors (and students) and in which the traditional forms and arrangements of organizational structure are rather supportive. , important and never to be underestimated, but supportive nonetheless.

            At the beginning of this presentation, in its first paragraphs, especially when dealing with institutionality and community and about instilling missionary purpose both in the “technical sphere” and in the “institutional” and “collegiate”, I left the speech prepared to state now that, To promote the initiatives and projects that derive from the strategic purposes to be assumed by INTEC in future periods, it is necessary to rely on all the Institute's human talent, especially the teaching staff.

            Here I want to use literally the words of John Kotter, the influential Harvard University professor specializing in the management of organizational change: “Without enough leadership in a rapidly changing world, organizations become static and ultimately fail. And by enough leadership, in organizations of any size, I don't mean a great CEO or executive committee. There is no way that a single figure or a small team at the top of the hierarchy can provide all the leadership that is needed. A superman or woman, even one who oversees an exceptional group of managers, who in turn oversee highly talented individual collaborators, can no longer do the job."[15].

         Kotter's recommendations draw on an interesting analogy with the computational world, to create what he calls a "dual operating system." Kotter advocates a dual system, accompanying the traditional structure by a second, more agile, network-like structure that operates in concert with the hierarchy, one that enables organizations to capitalize on rapid strategic challenges while keeping their operations stable. regular.

“As major players within these [higher education] systems, public and private universities have entered a time of turmoil for which no end is foreseen. The current crossroads has its origin in a simple fact: the demands placed on the universities exceed their capacity to respond ”. Clark, BR (1998) Creating Entrepreneurial Universities. Organizational Pathways of Transformation; IAU Press, Pergamon, Great Britain.

            Thus inspired, what the undersigned would propose as Rector is to open the rectory and the management levels of INTEC to work in networks, in horizontal and agile communication, in interaction as fluid as possible, with the teaching staff and, together with them and through he, with the student body, listening, identifying, defining, articulating and supporting academic initiatives in the curricular fields, of institutional links and relations, of alliances and of research and projects, such as those that have been discussed before in this exhibition. All of the above in order to find the agile and timely answers, and the actors and champions enthusiastic and appropriate to take advantage of the opportunities that are likely to be exploited within and within the Institute.

            Here are the reflections of Sir George Peter Scott, who was Vice Chancellor of Kingston University in London. Professor Scott warned that “rival 'knowledge' institutions such as management consultants, think-tanks or advocacy organizations on special issues, which may be better able to operate in the global knowledge economy than universities (because they“ travel light, in terms of heavy important traditions, and operate in conditions much closer to the market) ”, present significant competition to universities in terms of links and relationships with companies, governmental and non-governmental organizations. Sir Peter Scott acknowledged that: “This growing competition is interpreted by some people in government (and also in higher education) as evidence that universities lack entrepreneurial instincts and managerial skills, which, in their minds, underscores the need for universities to behave more like "market" organizations[16].

            The proposed rectory style is one that is in broad contact with the academic community, open to its ideas, concerns, concerns and proposals, without straitjackets, but with purpose. Eduardo Latorre said, figuratively, that he entered the campus visiting the bathrooms, because they placed him on how the institution was doing. Based on this anecdote, I would say, also figuratively, that the Rector must arrive at INTEC by walking the corridors, to be accessible and provoke interaction with people, to put it simply.

            It is about, as I said before, cultivating internal relationships and ties as networks that allow raising, maintaining and developing organizational commitment with a sense of mission and shared identity, of belonging, that sustains the enthusiasm to contribute the best of the capacities - the best of themselves - of each one.

An Ambidextrous Rector

            For all the above, the necessary ambidextrous condition of the Rector required by INTEC is assumed. Attentive and in monitoring of internal operations as well as opportunities and external relations. Providing leadership in academics and administration. Technically and institutionally.

            Of course, the conditions must be maintained and developed so that the Rector can broadly perform his irreplaceable roles of liaison, representative, spokesperson and negotiator, which require a lot of dedication in the external interfaces of the institution, as established in the management literature. In this regard, the proper functioning of the internal structures (vice-rectories, deanships, directorates) should allow that investment of time and efforts to the external of the institution, although never to the detriment of the attention and follow-up to the decisions and operations internally of the institution, in their roles as monitor, decision maker, resource allocator, entrepreneur and conflict manager, among others.

            To carry out this set of roles, the Rector must focus his use of the institution as a football team, and also as a rugby team. While a football team relies on division of labor, specialization, and regular play planning, the rugby team relies on a more spontaneous, fluid, and opportunistic distribution of plays.

            The success of a Rector depends on the proper balance of roles and styles, to which the accumulated experience contributes, as well as the team and the human capital in general of the institution in which it is located.

[1] Expression of the sociologist Danilo Clime in conversation with the engineer Ramón Flores García.

[2] Bresser-Pereira, LC & Cunill-Grau. N. (1998) Between the state and the market: the non-state public. eLearn: January 1998

[3] Selznick, P. (1957) Leadership in Administration. NY: Harper & Row.

[4] Bass, BM (1985).  Leadership and performance beyond expectations.  New York: Free Press.

[5] Hamel G., and Prahalad CK (1989) "Strategic Intent" Harvard Business Review, May-June, 1989, Vol. 67. No. 3. Pp. 63-78.

[6] Peter C. Evans, PC & Annunziata, M. (2012). Industrial Internet: Pushing the Boundaries of Minds and Machines. Boston, MA: General Electric Reports.

[7] Friedman, TL (2005). The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century. NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

[8] Sánchez Maríñez, J. (2016) Challenges to Training for the 4th. Industrial Revolution (and those to follow). Made in RD, magazine of the Association of Industries of the Dominican Republic, Year 5, No. 11.

[9] Russell, P. (1983). The Global Brain: speculations on the evolutionary leap to planetary consciousness. Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher.

[10] Sánchez Maríñez, J., Tavarez, JA, Camilo Vincent, O. & Escala, MJ (2020). Present and future of the virtualization of teaching in Dominican higher education: From a reactive present to a proactive construction. (Document for critical reflection)

[11] Tapscott, D. (1996). The Digital Economy: Promise and profile in the age of networked intelligence. NY: McGraw-Hill.

[12] The Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE), a prestigious organization in the field of higher education in the United States and also in Latin America, resulting from the merger of The American Alumni Council and The American College Public Relations Association 

[13] Rhodes, FHT (1999) The New University, in Challenges Facing Higher Education at The Millennium, Chapter 17, edited by Werner Z. Hirsh and Lue E. Weber. Washington, DC: The American Council on Education and The Oryx Press.

[14] Stokes, D. (1997). Pasteur's Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

[15] Kotter, J. (2014) Accelerate: Building Strategic Agility for a Faster-Moving World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.

[16] Scott, P. (2002, March). The limits of the market: Universities and the knowledge economy, at the Nuffic Conference on The global higher education market; Shifting roles, changing rules, The Hague, Netherlands. Recovered from: